Dr. Daniel Pompa

What Causes High Estrogen Levels

What Causes High Estrogen Levels And What Diseases Are Linked To Estrogen Dominance

Instead of asking what causes high estrogen levels, it is better to consider what doesn’t since so many foods and consumer products are hormone disruptors. Here we will look at why so many people suffer from high estrogen levels and the health consequences of such.

What Is Estrogen?

Estrogen is a hormone that plays an important role in the development of female reproductive organs, including the uterus and ovaries. High estrogen levels can lead to a number of health issues. Symptoms of high estrogen include fatigue, headaches, breast tenderness, weight gain, and bloating. Estrogen dominance can also cause irregular menstrual periods, mood swings, low libido, and infertility. 

High estrogen levels have been linked to an increased risk for certain types of cancer including breast, ovarian, and endometrial cancer. High estrogen levels can also disrupt the balance of other hormones in the body leading to an increased risk for certain thyroid diseases.

Furthermore, high estrogen levels have been linked to elevated cholesterol levels, which are correlated to heart disease. Lastly, high estrogen can trigger symptoms of depression and anxiety due to imbalances in brain chemistry.1

High estrogen levels

What Are The 3 Types Of Estrogen?

The three main types of estrogen are estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), and estriol (E3).

Estrone (E1) is the main estrogen in postmenopausal women and is also produced by the ovaries in smaller amounts during a woman’s reproductive years. Estradiol (E2) is the predominant form of estrogen in premenopausal women. It plays an important role in the regulation of the menstrual cycle and is essential for maintaining bone density and healthy cholesterol levels. Estriol (E3) is produced mainly during pregnancy, where it helps nurture and protect a developing fetus.2

Low or high amounts of estradiol can result in various uncomfortable symptoms that can interfere with daily life. In females, estradiol is primarily made in the ovaries, but it is also produced in smaller amounts by the breasts and adrenal glands. During pregnancy, estradiol production occurs in the placenta as well.1

What Causes High Estrogen Levels – Grains

Grains, like wheat, oats, and barley, are some of the most common causes of high estrogen levels in both men and women. Grains contains phytoestrogens, which are plant-based compounds that mimic the effects of estrogen in the body. When a person consumes foods containing these phytoestrogens, it can cause their hormone levels to become unbalanced.3 Ideally, avoid grains completely as they cause more harm than good. Instead, consider eating food from my Cellular Healing Diet.

What Causes High Estrogen Levels – Soy

Legumes like soy are high in phytoestrogens, which can mimic the effects of estrogen. Phytoestrogens are found in beans, lentils, chickpeas, soybeans, and peanuts. They interfere with the body’s production of estrogen by binding to the same receptors as naturally occurring hormones.4 Foods that are high in phytoestrogens should be limited or avoided if you’re concerned about high estrogen levels. Additionally, many processed foods contain added soy products and other plant-based ingredients.

What Causes High Estrogen Levels - Soy

What Causes High Estrogen Levels – Food Preservatives

Food preservatives are a common cause of high estrogen levels. Many processed foods contain additives and preservatives that can disrupt the balance of hormones in the body, resulting in increased estrogen levels. These preservatives include BHA (Butylated Hydroxyanisole), BHT (Butylated Hydroxytoluene), propyl gallate, and propylene glycol.5 6 These chemicals are found in many processed foods such as cereals, snacks, cookies, chips, and crackers.

What Causes High Estrogen Levels – Conventionally Farmed Dairy And Meat

High estrogen levels can result from consuming conventionally farmed dairy and meat products. Conventionally farmed animals are often given hormones, including estrogens, to promote faster growth and increased milk production. These hormones can enter the food chain through both meat and dairy products and eventually make their way into our bodies when we consume them.7

Studies have shown that the hormones given to conventionally farmed animals can remain active even after being processed and cooked. This means that consuming these products can increase our estrogen levels.8 To avoid this issue, it is best to purchase organic dairy and meat from grass-fed, hormone-free animals whenever possible.

What Causes High Estrogen Levels - Conventionally Farmed Dairy And Meat

What Causes High Estrogen Levels – Excessive Alcohol Consumption

Excessive alcohol consumption can lead to elevated estrogen levels in both men and women. Alcohol is metabolized by the liver, which is responsible for processing hormones like estrogen. When the liver becomes overwhelmed by alcohol, it has difficulty breaking down and eliminating excess hormones, resulting in higher-than-normal levels of estrogen in the body. 

Women may also experience an increase in estrogen due to the presence of phytoestrogens found in alcoholic beverages such as beer and wine.9

What Causes High Estrogen Levels – Tap Water And Some Bottled Water

Tap water and some bottled water can contain high levels of estrogen, as many bottled water companies simply use tap water. The main source of estrogen in tap water is runoff from animal manure ending up in the water supply.10

Additionally, water that has been bottled in PET plastic containers contains three times the level of endocrine disruptors than water in glass containers.11 If you aren’t drinking high-quality RO water or spring water out of glass bottles, consider doing so.

What Causes High Estrogen Levels – Endocrine-Disrupting Compounds

Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) are chemicals that interfere with the normal functioning of hormones in the body. Common EDCs include pesticides, industrial chemicals, and pollutants found in some food products, water sources, and everyday items. High levels of xenoestrogens, or estrogen-like substances, can mimic natural hormones and upset the balance of hormones in the body, leading to unnaturally high estrogen levels.12

Endocrine-Disrupting Compounds

What Causes High Estrogen Levels – Endocrine Disrupting Compounds – BPA

Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical found in certain plastics and resins. It is used to make polycarbonate plastics, which are used in food containers, water bottles, and other consumer products. BPA can leach into food or beverages from the containers it is stored in, leading to BPA exposure. Research suggests that BPA can affect the endocrine system, leading to an increase in estrogen levels, and breast cancer.13

What Causes High Estrogen Levels – Endocrine Disrupting Compounds – Phthalates

Another class of chemicals that causes high estrogen levels and has been linked to the disruption of the endocrine system is phthalates. Phthalates are commonly used in plastics, perfumes, household cleaners, and other products. These chemicals can disrupt the body’s natural hormones, leading to increased levels of estrogen in both men and women. Long-term exposure to phthalates has been linked to an increased risk of certain cancers and reproductive issues.14

What Causes High Estrogen Levels – Endocrine Disrupting Compounds – Parabens

Parabens are a group of chemicals found in cosmetics and personal care products such as shampoos, conditioners, body wash, lotions, and other beauty products. They are used as preservatives to improve the shelf-life of these products. Unfortunately, they have been linked to increased levels of estrogen in the body.15

What Causes High Estrogen Levels – Endocrine Disrupting Compounds – Dioxins

Dioxins are a family of chemical compounds, some of which can act as endocrine disruptors. They are often found in industrial waste and in areas where there is heavy air pollution. Dioxins bind to estrogen receptors and can stimulate the production of excess amounts of estrogen. Animal studies have linked high levels of dioxin exposure to increased cancer risk and reproductive abnormalities.16

Read more about other common toxins we are bombarded by.

What Causes High Estrogen Levels – Lead

Elevated levels of lead in the body have been linked to high estrogen levels.17 Lead is a heavy metal that can be found naturally in the environment, but exposure to it can also come from certain practices such as burning fossil fuels and consuming contaminated food or water.

Read more about lead toxicity.

What Causes High Estrogen Levels – Mercury

Mercury toxicity is one of the causes of high estrogen levels.18 Mercury is a heavy metal found in many consumer products, such as batteries, thermometers, and fluorescent lightbulbs. Symptoms of mercury toxicity include fatigue, headaches, muscle weakness, and depression. To reduce the risk of mercury toxicity and its associated high estrogen levels, avoid products containing mercury. Additionally, reduce your intake of fish caught in mercury-contaminated waters.

Read more about mercury toxicity.

Estrogen Dominance

Estrogen dominance is a condition in which estrogen levels are too high relative to progesterone levels. This may result in the growth of fibroids, cysts, cervical dysplasia, and tumors.19

High Estrogen And Cancer

Estrogen has numerous beneficial roles in the body, such as regulating the menstrual cycle and reproduction, modulating bone density, influencing brain function, and stimulating cholesterol mobilization. However, prolonged exposure to artificial estrogen can prove hazardous, as it is a well-established risk factor for various types of cancer.20

High Estrogen And Breast Cancer

There is increasing evidence suggesting that high estrogen levels play a significant role in the development of breast cancer. Studies on both pre-and postmenopausal women reiterate that estrogen levels are correlated to the risk of breast cancer.21

High Estrogen Levels And Breast Cancer

High Estrogen Levels And Lung Cancer

The role of estrogen in lung cancer has been postulated as a contributor to its development and progression. Estrogen also has been linked to increased levels of certain tumor markers that are associated with worse outcomes for people with lung cancer.22

The Best Estrogen Test

A 24-hour urine hormone test is used to measure the levels of hormones in the body. It is used to diagnose certain conditions like estrogen dominance. The test measures hormones like cortisol, testosterone, estradiol, progesterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH). 

This is the test that saved my wife’s life, as once we determined she was suffering from estrogen dominance, we were able to pinpoint the cause, which was lead toxicity. At that moment, we began the heavy metal chelation protocol to remove lead from her body and target the source that was making her sick.

Read more about heavy metal chelation.

What Causes High Estrogen Levels

Now that you know what causes high estrogen levels, you can modify your lifestyle to avoid these xenoestrogens. Environmental factors such as the food we eat, air pollution, and industrial chemicals used in consumer products can all increase estrogen levels. High estrogen levels can increase the risk of certain types of cancer and other health problems. 

Read more about toxic chemicals in cosmetics.


1 Holland, K. (2018, April 19). Signs and Symptoms of High Estrogen. Healthline. https://www.healthline.com/health/high-estrogen#complications

2 Estrogen Test. (2017, March 31). WebMD. https://www.webmd.com/women/guide/estrogen-test

3 Palacios OM, Cortes HN, Jenks BH, Maki KC. Naturally occurring hormones in foods and potential health effects. Toxicology Research and Application. 2020;4. doi:10.1177/2397847320936281

4 Anderson JW, Johnstone BM, Cook-Newell ME. Meta-analysis of the effects of soy protein intake on serum lipids. New England Journal of Medicine. 1995 Aug 3;333(5):276-82.

5 Amadasi A, Mozzarelli A, Meda C, Maggi A, Cozzini P. Identification of xenoestrogens in food additives by an integrated in silico and in vitro approach. Chem Res Toxicol. 2009 Jan;22(1):52-63. doi: 10.1021/tx800048m. PMID: 19063592; PMCID: PMC2758355.

6 American Chemical Society. (2009, March 5). Two Food Additives Have Previously Unrecognized Estrogen-like Effects. ScienceDaily. Retrieved April 19, 2023 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/03/090302125924.htm

7 Malekinejad H, Rezabakhsh A. Hormones in Dairy Foods and Their Impact on Public Health – A Narrative Review Article. Iran J Public Health. 2015 Jun;44(6):742-58. PMID: 26258087; PMCID: PMC4524299.

8 Remesar X, Tang V, Ferrer E, Torregrosa C, Virgili J, Masanés RM, Fernández-López JA, Alemany M. Estrone in food: a factor influencing the development of obesity? Eur J Nutr. 1999 Oct;38(5):247-53. doi: 10.1007/s003940050068. PMID: 10654162.

9 Gavaler JS. Alcoholic beverages as a source of estrogens. Alcohol Health Res World. 1998;22(3):220-7. PMID: 15706799; PMCID: PMC6761902.

10 American Chemical Society. (2011, February 15). Don’t blame the pill for estrogen in drinking water. ScienceDaily. Retrieved April 19, 2023 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/12/101208125813.htm

11 Martin Wagner, Jörg Oehlmann, Endocrine disruptors in bottled mineral water: Estrogenic activity in the E-Screen, The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Volume 127, Issues 1–2, 2011, Pages 128-135, ISSN 0960-0760, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsbmb.2010.10.007.

12 Filby AL, Neuparth T, Thorpe KL, Owen R, Galloway TS, Tyler CR. Health impacts of estrogens in the environment, considering complex mixture effects. Environ Health Perspect. 2007 Dec;115(12):1704-10. doi: 10.1289/ehp.10443. PMID: 18087587; PMCID: PMC2137123.

13 Fernandez SV, Russo J. Estrogen and xenoestrogens in breast cancer. Toxicol Pathol. 2010 Jan;38(1):110-22. doi: 10.1177/0192623309354108. Epub 2009 Nov 21. PMID: 19933552; PMCID: PMC2907875.

14 Lee HR, Hwang KA, Choi KC. The estrogen receptor signaling pathway activated by phthalates is linked with transforming growth factor-β in the progression of LNCaP prostate cancer models. Int J Oncol. 2014 Aug;45(2):595-602. doi: 10.3892/ijo.2014.2460. Epub 2014 May 22. PMID: 24858230.

15 Liang J, Liu QS, Ren Z, Min K, Yang X, Hao F, Zhang Q, Liu Q, Zhou Q, Jiang G. Studying paraben-induced estrogen receptor- and steroid hormone-related endocrine disruption effects via multi-level approaches. Sci Total Environ. 2023 Apr 15;869:161793. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2023.161793. Epub 2023 Jan 23. PMID: 36702264.

16 Boverhof DR, Kwekel JC, Humes DG, Burgoon LD, Zacharewski TR. Dioxin induces an estrogen-like, estrogen receptor-dependent gene expression response in the murine uterus. Mol Pharmacol. 2006 May;69(5):1599-606. doi: 10.1124/mol.105.019638. Epub 2006 Feb 8. PMID: 16467188.

17 Martin MB, Reiter R, Pham T, Avellanet YR, Camara J, Lahm M, Pentecost E, Pratap K, Gilmore BA, Divekar S, Dagata RS, Bull JL, Stoica A. Estrogen-like activity of metals in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Endocrinology. 2003 Jun;144(6):2425-36. doi: 10.1210/en.2002-221054. PMID: 12746304.

18 Viroj Wiwanitkit, Hyperestrogenemia and increased blood mercury level, Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction, Volume 1, Issue 3, 2012, Pages 236-237, ISSN 2305-0500, https://doi.org/10.1016/S2305-0500(13)60084-6.

19 Patel S, Homaei A, Raju AB, Meher BR. Estrogen: The necessary evil for human health, and ways to tame it. Biomed Pharmacother. 2018 Jun;102:403-411. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2018.03.078. Epub 2018 Mar 22. PMID: 29573619.

20 Liang J, Shang Y. Estrogen and cancer. Annu Rev Physiol. 2013;75:225-40. doi: 10.1146/annurev-physiol-030212-183708. Epub 2012 Oct 8. PMID: 23043248.

21 Samavat H, Kurzer MS. Estrogen metabolism and breast cancer. Cancer Lett. 2015 Jan 28;356(2 Pt A):231-43. doi: 10.1016/j.canlet.2014.04.018. Epub 2014 Apr 28. PMID: 24784887; PMCID: PMC4505810.

22 Hsu LH, Chu NM, Kao SH. Estrogen, Estrogen Receptor and Lung Cancer. Int J Mol Sci. 2017 Aug 5;18(8):1713. doi: 10.3390/ijms18081713. PMID: 28783064; PMCID: PMC5578103.

What Causes Metabolic Syndrome

What Causes Metabolic Syndrome And How To Reverse It

There are a number of factors that causes metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic disorders that affects 1 in 3 people over the age of 60. It is characterized by three or more risk factors, such as abdominal obesity, high blood sugar, high triglyceride levels, high blood pressure, or low HDL cholesterol. This condition can lead to serious health problems such as stroke, heart disease, and diabetes.1 2

Some of the most important steps to help prevent metabolic syndrome include keeping a healthy body weight, exercising regularly, and following a diet that focuses on natural foods while avoiding unhealthy foods. Incorporating these changes into your lifestyle can have positive impacts on your overall health and help you reduce your risk for metabolic syndrome.

A modest weight loss of just 5% of your existing body weight could lead to a decrease in triglycerides, blood sugar levels, and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Even greater amounts of weight loss can also help reduce blood pressure readings, lower LDL cholesterol, and increase HDL cholesterol.3

Read more about diabetes.

What Type Of Diet Causes Metabolic Syndrome

The diet that causes metabolic syndrome is mainly processed and artificial foods. These pre-packaged items are usually lacking in beneficial nutrients and contain unhealthy additives and preservatives that are detrimental to your health. Opt for fresh, whole foods as much as possible to make sure you’re getting the nutritional benefits they provide.

A 2015 study revealed that consuming fast food, one of the most unhealthy processed foods available leads to an increase in metabolic syndrome in both children and adults.4 Additionally, a study conducted in Brazil found that individuals who consumed high amounts of ultra-processed foods had a higher likelihood of developing metabolic syndrome during adolescence.5

Fast Food Causes Metabolic Syndrome

Artificial Sweeteners Are Another Factor That Causes Metabolic Syndrome

Recent studies have indicated that artificial sweeteners like Splenda are another factor that causes metabolic syndrome, as they are linked with the development of diabetes. Some research has suggested that those who often consume sugar substitutes containing sucralose, aspartame, and saccharin may be at greater risk of not only gaining undesirable weight but also developing metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.6

Aspartame Is Classified As A Chemical Carcinogen In Rats

Aspartame is a chemical sweetener that has been used in products for decades. While it may make food taste sweeter and help to reduce calorie intake, there are some serious health problems that come with the use of aspartame. Studies have shown that aspartame can cause cancer when consumed, as it breaks down in the body and produces formaldehyde, a known carcinogen. Despite this, aspartame is still used in many products such as diet soda, sugar-free chewing gum, and flavored water.7

Aspartame Causes Weight Gain

The consumption of aspartame has been linked to increases in both circulating insulin and leptin levels. This can cause leptin resistance which is associated with obesity. Aspartame has also been linked to increases in food cravings, particularly for sweet foods. This can lead to weight gain, especially when coupled with a sedentary lifestyle.8

Read more about what else causes fat accumulation.

Artificial Sweeteners Causes Metabolic Syndrome

Diet Soda Causes Metabolic Syndrome

Since diet sodas contain artificial sweeteners, it is best to avoid them. Studies have shown that drinking diet soda regularly is directly linked with both metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. A 2009 study revealed that drinking diet soda on a daily basis was associated with a 36 percent higher risk of developing metabolic syndrome and a 67 percent higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes.9

Sugar Causes Metabolic Syndrome

Consuming sugary and processed carbohydrates can be highly detrimental to one’s health, especially in regard to blood sugar levels, insulin resistance, and the progression of diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Sugary drinks, even fruit juice, are particularly concerning, as they contain high amounts of refined sugars. Similarly, refined carbohydrates cause a spike in blood sugar levels upon consumption.10

A study performed in Korea, a country that struggles with metabolic syndrome, took a look at how refined carbohydrates played a role in this disease. The findings of this study suggest that the consumption of refined carbohydrates causes metabolic syndrome.11

Trans Fats Causes Metabolic Syndrome

Trans fats are known to contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome due to their pro-inflammatory effects on the body. These effects cause an increase in inflammation throughout the body leading to increased insulin resistance and weight gain. 

Trans fats have also been shown to decrease the body’s sensitivity to insulin, meaning that it takes more insulin to properly regulate blood sugar levels. This further increases the risk of developing metabolic syndrome and other chronic diseases such as diabetes and heart disease. Reducing or eliminating trans fat consumption is one way to reduce your risk of developing these conditions.12

Trans Fats Causes Metabolic Syndrome

Alcohol Causes Metabolic Syndrome

Keeping alcohol consumption low is important in maintaining good health and reducing the risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Excessive drinking can result in an increase in blood pressure and an increase triglyceride levels, as well as add unnecessary calories that inevitably result in weight gain.13

Read more about how to lose weight.

Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals Cause Metabolic Syndrome

Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are a group of compounds that have the potential to interfere with the production, release, transport, metabolism, and elimination of hormones in the body. These chemicals are found in many everyday products such as plastics, pesticides, drugs, food additives, and personal care items. Studies have shown that EDCs can affect metabolic processes in humans and animals. 

Research suggests that exposure to EDCs can influence metabolic processes, leading to an increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome. EDCs have been associated with obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, all factors that are part of the condition. They can also disrupt glucose metabolism by altering the function of hormones such as insulin. This disruption can lead to changes in blood sugar levels and the development of conditions such as type 2 diabetes.

EDCs also have a direct impact on the production and regulation of hormones that control metabolic processes. These hormones, such as leptin and ghrelin, are responsible for controlling appetite, energy balance, and metabolism. When they become imbalanced due to EDC exposure, it can lead to changes in weight and body composition.14

Healthy Foods That Counter Metabolic Syndrome

A diet that is high in omega-3 fatty acids has been linked to a number of heart health benefits. Studies suggest that these essential fatty acids may help maintain a normal heartbeat, normalize blood pressure, reduce the risk of blood clots, and downregulate inflammation. This means that consuming food high in omega-3 fatty acids like cold water fish can reduce the risk of both strokes and heart attacks.15

Healthy Foods That Counter Metabolic Syndrome

Metabolic Syndrome And Exercise

Regular exercise can play an important role in helping to reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome. Being physically active helps to lower blood pressure, improve cholesterol levels, and prevent or reduce unhealthy weight gain. Exercise also increases sensitivity to insulin, which helps keep blood glucose levels stable.

A 2017 study revealed that those who engaged in resistance exercise for only an hour a week reduced their risk of succumbing to metabolic syndrome by 29 percent. Furthermore, participants who added aerobic exercise to resistance training exhibited a 54 percent lower risk of developing metabolic syndrome.16

Metabolic Syndrome And Intermittent Fasting

Studies suggest that fasting can reduce waist circumference, lower cholesterol levels, and improve insulin sensitivity. Additionally, fasting may help to regulate hormones that affect appetite, food cravings, and fat storage. Longer water fasts lasting multiple days can also lead to significant weight loss in those with metabolic syndrome.

Studies have found that intermittent fasting can help improve the symptoms of metabolic syndrome by decreasing body weight and reducing blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and triglyceride levels. Fasting also helps reduce inflammation in the body and has even been shown to reverse type 2 diabetes.17 18 19

Common approaches to intermittent fasting include alternate-day fasting, restricted-feeding windows, and time-restricted feeding. During fasting periods, individuals do not consume food or drink anything but water for 12 to 24 hours.

Intermittent fasting has many potential health benefits, such as improved cardiovascular health and reduced risk of disease. For people with metabolic syndrome, intermittent fasting can be an effective way to manage the condition and reduce symptoms.

What Causes Metabolic Syndrome

Now that you know what causes metabolic syndrome, what can you do to reverse it? The first step in preventing or reversing metabolic syndrome is to follow a healthy lifestyle. This includes regular physical activity, a balanced diet, and keeping alcohol consumption to a minimum. Making lifestyle changes can help reduce your risk for metabolic syndrome and its related conditions like high blood pressure and type 2 diabetes. Intermittent fasting and regular multiple-day fasts are the most effective way to reverse metabolic syndrome.

Read more about the amazing health benefits of fasting.


1 Metabolic syndrome – Symptoms and causes – Mayo Clinic. (2021, May 6). Mayo Clinic. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/metabolic-syndrome/symptoms-causes/syc-20351916

2 Metabolic Syndrome. (2021, August 8). Johns Hopkins Medicine. https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/conditions-and-diseases/metabolic-syndrome

3 Prescription weight-loss drugs. (2022, October 29). Mayo Clinic. https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/weight-loss/in-depth/weight-loss-drugs/art-20044832

4 Asghari G, Yuzbashian E, Mirmiran P, Mahmoodi B, Azizi F. Fast Food Intake Increases the Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome in Children and Adolescents: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. PLoS One. 2015 Oct 8;10(10):e0139641. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0139641. PMID: 26447855; PMCID: PMC4598125.

5 Tavares LF, Fonseca SC, Garcia Rosa ML, Yokoo EM. Relationship between ultra-processed foods and metabolic syndrome in adolescents from a Brazilian Family Doctor Program. Public Health Nutr. 2012 Jan;15(1):82-7. doi: 10.1017/S1368980011001571. Epub 2011 Jul 14. PMID: 21752314.

6 Swithers SE. Artificial sweeteners produce the counterintuitive effect of inducing metabolic derangements. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Sep;24(9):431-41. doi: 10.1016/j.tem.2013.05.005. Epub 2013 Jul 10. PMID: 23850261; PMCID: PMC3772345.

7 Landrigan PJ, Straif K. Aspartame and cancer – new evidence for causation. Environ Health. 2021 Apr 12;20(1):42. doi: 10.1186/s12940-021-00725-y. PMID: 33845854; PMCID: PMC8042911.

8 Artificial Sweeteners and Leptin; Impaired Lipid Storage and Starvation | NIH Intramural Research Program. (2014). https://irp.nih.gov/catalyst/22/3/artificial-sweeteners-and-leptin-impaired-lipid-storage-and-starvation

9 Nettleton JA, Lutsey PL, Wang Y, Lima JA, Michos ED, Jacobs DR Jr. Diet soda intake and risk of incident metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Diabetes Care. 2009 Apr;32(4):688-94. doi: 10.2337/dc08-1799. Epub 2009 Jan 16. PMID: 19151203; PMCID: PMC2660468.

10 Mirmiran P, Yuzbashian E, Asghari G, Hosseinpour-Niazi S, Azizi F. Consumption of sugar sweetened beverage is associated with incidence of metabolic syndrome in Tehranian children and adolescents. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2015 Jul 30;12:25. doi: 10.1186/s12986-015-0021-6. PMID: 26225136; PMCID: PMC4518610.

11 Song S, Lee JE, Song WO, Paik HY, Song Y. Carbohydrate intake and refined-grain consumption are associated with metabolic syndrome in the Korean adult population. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2014 Jan;114(1):54-62. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2013.08.025. Epub 2013 Nov 5. PMID: 24200655.

12 Micha R, Mozaffarian D. Trans fatty acids: effects on metabolic syndrome, heart disease and diabetes. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2009 Jun;5(6):335-44. doi: 10.1038/nrendo.2009.79. Epub 2009 Apr 28. PMID: 19399016.

13 Sun K, Ren M, Liu D, Wang C, Yang C, Yan L. Alcohol consumption and risk of metabolic syndrome: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Clin Nutr. 2014 Aug;33(4):596-602. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2013.10.003. Epub 2013 Oct 14. PMID: 24315622.

14 Haverinen E, Fernandez MF, Mustieles V, Tolonen H. Metabolic Syndrome and Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals: An Overview of Exposure and Health Effects. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Dec 10;18(24):13047. doi: 10.3390/ijerph182413047. PMID: 34948652; PMCID: PMC8701112.

15 Lorente-Cebrián S, Costa AG, Navas-Carretero S, Zabala M, Martínez JA, Moreno-Aliaga MJ. Role of omega-3 fatty acids in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular diseases: a review of the evidence. J Physiol Biochem. 2013 Sep;69(3):633-51. doi: 10.1007/s13105-013-0265-4. Epub 2013 Jun 22. PMID: 23794360.

16 Bakker, E. A., Lee, D., Sui, X., Artero, E. G., Ruiz, J. R., Eijsvogels, T. M. H., Lavie, C. J., & Blair, S. N. (2017). Association of Resistance Exercise, Independent of and Combined With Aerobic Exercise, With the Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 92(8), 1214–1222. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2017.02.018

17 Vasim I, Majeed CN, DeBoer MD. Intermittent Fasting and Metabolic Health. Nutrients. 2022 Jan 31;14(3):631. doi: 10.3390/nu14030631. PMID: 35276989; PMCID: PMC8839325.

18 Rajpal A, Ismail-Beigi F. Intermittent fasting and ‘metabolic switch’: Effects on metabolic syndrome, prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2020 Sep;22(9):1496-1510. doi: 10.1111/dom.14080. Epub 2020 Jun 3. PMID: 32372521.

19 Albosta M, Bakke J. Intermittent fasting: is there a role in the treatment of diabetes? A review of the literature and guide for primary care physicians. Clin Diabetes Endocrinol. 2021 Feb 3;7(1):3. doi: 10.1186/s40842-020-00116-1. PMID: 33531076; PMCID: PMC7856758.

What Causes Low Testosterone

What Causes Low Testosterone And What Can Be Done About It

Let’s take a look at what causes low testosterone and what can be done to remedy the issue. Hypogonadism is a condition in which the body does not produce enough of the hormones responsible for sexual development and fertility. In males, the main androgen hormone is known as testosterone. Low testosterone levels that accompany hypogonadism can cause symptoms like a lack of muscle strength, erectile dysfunction, and hair loss. Treatment of this condition typically involves both natural options and hormone replacement therapy.1

What Causes Low Testosterone – Symptoms

Symptoms of low testosterone include decreased libido, infertility, fatigue, reduced muscle mass and bone density, enlarged breasts, reduced facial hair, changes in mood or behavior, low libido, headaches, and erectile dysfunction.2 Exactly what causes low testosterone levels include age-related changes in the body, lifestyle factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, exposure to toxins, certain medical conditions like diabetes or obesity, genetic abnormalities, medications such as steroids or hormone therapy drugs, and even stress.3

What Causes Low Testosterone – Primary And Central Hypogonadism

Primary hypogonadism is a condition in which the gonads do not produce enough testosterone. Primary hypogonadism can be caused by genetic, medical, or lifestyle factors. Common causes include Kallmann syndrome, Turner’s syndrome, chemotherapy and radiation therapy for cancer treatment, chronic illnesses such as diabetes and HIV/AIDS, excessive exercise or eating disorders such as anorexia, and certain autoimmune diseases.

Read more about autoimmune diseases

Central hypogonadism is a condition that affects the hormones released by the gonads. It occurs when something disrupts the normal operation of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, resulting in reduced levels of testosterone in men. These glands are responsible for controlling the gonads as well as the release of hormones, but when there is an issue with these centers, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone production may be affected.4

What Causes Low Testosterone

What Causes Low Testosterone As Men Age

Secondary hypogonadism is often caused by androgen deficiency of the aging male (ADAM). After the age of 40, testosterone levels decline. As this happens, symptoms of androgen deficiency often begin to appear such as decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, fatigue, decreased muscle mass, increased body fat, reduced bone density, and mood changes.5

Research indicates that 34 percent of men aged between 45 and 54 have low testosterone, while this figure rises to 50 percent in men who are over 85 years old.6 Further research indicates that hypogonadism is linked to a number of health concerns, including Type 2 diabetes, hypertension, obesity, osteoporosis, and metabolic syndrome.7

Read more about metabolic syndrome.

What Causes Low Testosterone In Males Across The Board

What Causes Low Testosterone In Males Across The Board?

A decline in testosterone levels in men across all age ranges has been reported in recent years.8 This troubling trend has been attributed to various environmental factors such as endocrine-disrupting compounds and heavy metal exposure.

What Causes Low Testosterone – Endocrine Disrupting Compounds

Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) are a type of chemical found in everyday products such as detergents, plastics, and cosmetics. EDCs have been linked to a range of negative health effects including infertility, birth defects, and hormone imbalances. In men, EDCs can disrupt the production of testosterone leading to low levels of the hormone. EDCs are believed to work by mimicking or blocking hormones in the body, leading to the disruption of normal hormonal levels and processes.7

What Causes Low Testosterone – Heavy Metal Toxicity

Heavy metals have a detrimental effect on all aspects of human physiology, and testosterone production is no exception. Exposure to heavy metals, such as lead and mercury, has been linked to decreased testosterone levels.9 In addition to a drop in testosterone production, chronic exposure to heavy metals also lead to an increased risk of certain types of cancer.10

Read more about how mercury and lead are causing disastrous health effects.

What Causes Low Testosterone Levels

Removing Heavy Metals With DMSA Chelation Therapy

DMSA chelation therapy is a safe, natural, and effective method to detoxify the body of heavy metals. It works by binding to heavy metals in the bloodstream and removing them through the urine. DMSA can be taken orally or intravenously for more targeted removal of specific metals.

When it comes to the removal of heavy metals, DMSA is considered to be one of the most potent and effective chelating agents available. It has been approved by the FDA for treating lead poisoning in children, and it is known to be highly successful in binding other metals such as mercury, arsenic, and cadmium.11

DMSA chelation therapy works best when done systematically over a period of time. Typically, the therapy involves taking DMSA orally or intravenously for 3-5 days and then taking a break for 5-7 days before repeating the cycle again. This allows the body to slowly detoxify itself while avoiding any shock from sudden heavy metal removal.

The effects of DMSA chelation therapy typically appear anywhere from a few days to several weeks after initiating the treatment. However, adequately removing heavy metals from the body usually takes years. Common benefits of DMSA chelation therapy include improved energy levels, better moods, and clearer thinking. DMSA can help reduce inflammation and improve cardiovascular health.12

What Causes Low Testosterone Levels – Stress

A recent study has revealed a strong link between testosterone levels and stress. This study measured participants’ stress responses and their perceived stress levels. Results showed that there was a link between low testosterone levels and high levels of stress. This suggests that testosterone levels are a reliable indicator of an individual’s capacity to handle stress as well as emotional resilience.13

What Causes Low Testosterone Levels - Stress

Obesity And Low Testosterone Levels

For the majority of people, achieving and maintaining a healthy body weight is essential in order to regulate their hormone levels. To do this, eating habits need to be modified. Eating right is the most effective natural approach for treating hypogonadism. An unhealthy BMI, either overweight or underweight, can have a negative impact on testosterone levels.

Additionally, low testosterone levels coupled with obesity can be detrimental to neural health, increasing the risk for dangerous diseases such as type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer’s.14

Read more about Alzheimer’s Disease.

Exercise And Testosterone Levels

Regular exercise can help to regulate or increase testosterone levels that are low. In fact, physical exercise, no matter how brief, has been associated with an increase in testosterone levels.15

Weight training, as well as high-intensity interval training (HIIT workouts), are two of the most effective ways to increase testosterone and human growth hormone levels. Even more interesting is that heavy lifting isn’t required to increase testosterone production, as any amount of weight lifting corresponds with a spike in testosterone levels when compared with no exercise at all.16

Reversing What Causes Low Testosterone And Improving Testosterone Levels Naturally

To improve testosterone levels, try a range of stress-relieving activities like spending time in nature, meditating, high-intensity exercising, connecting with friends or family, and keeping a journal. Additionally, eating healthy food, staying away from EDCs, and reducing exposure to heavy metals can allow for sufficient natural testosterone production.

If that is not enough, consider taking supplements that have been shown to increase testosterone levels.

L-Arginine And Testosterone

L-arginine is an essential amino acid found in our diet that has numerous beneficial effects. Studies have demonstrated that L-arginine supplementation increases the production of growth hormones, addresses impotence, and improves male erectile dysfunction as well as infertility. Arginine is necessary for the optimal functionality of testosterone.17

Research reveals that consuming L-arginine can double resting human growth hormone (HGH) levels from baseline. In terms of hypogonadism, this is excellent news since HGH is known to naturally increase testosterone production.18

A diet full of wholesome, organic, real foods can help your body produce and utilize more L-arginine. By eating my Cellular Healing Diet which consists of organic grass-fed beef, wild-caught fish, and grass-fed butter, you’ll have the building blocks to optimize testosterone production.

L-Arginine And Testosterone

Ashwagandha And Testosterone

Studies have indicated that ashwagandha, a plant that has traditionally been used to treat male sexual dysfunction and infertility, can improve testosterone levels. Study participants took ashwagandha and witnessed a 167 percent increase in sperm count.19 Another study on aging males determined that consumption of ashwagandha for 8 weeks coincided with a 14.7% increase in serum testosterone levels.20

DHEA And Testosterone

DHEA is an important hormone for maintaining testosterone levels. In men, DHEA plays a key role in spermatogenesis and sexual function. Additionally, DHEA helps regulate metabolic activity and contributes to general health and well-being. Research suggests that supplementing with the hormone DHEA increases free testosterone levels.21

DHEA And Testosterone

Treating Low Testosterone With Testosterone Replacement Therapy

Dietary changes, exercise, supplements, and weight loss can help improve testosterone levels naturally. However, if that is not enough, there are medications available such as topical gels, patches, or injections that deliver testosterone directly to the bloodstream.22

What Causes Low Testosterone

In order to counter what causes low testosterone, it is important to first identify the underlying issue and make changes accordingly. For example, if stress or lack of exercise is contributing to the condition, lifestyle changes such as implementing an exercise program or relaxation techniques are recommended. If that is not enough, supplements like L-Arginine, Ashwagandha, and DHEA can improve testosterone levels. Alternatively, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) may be needed in more severe cases. 

Read more about hormone dysfunction.


1 Carnegie C. Diagnosis of hypogonadism: clinical assessments and laboratory tests. Rev Urol. 2004;6 Suppl 6(Suppl 6):S3-8. PMID: 16985909; PMCID: PMC1472884.

2 Society, E. (2022). Hypogonadism in Men. Endocrine Society. https://www.endocrine.org/patient-engagement/endocrine-library/hypogonadism

3 Male hypogonadism – Symptoms and causes – Mayo Clinic. (2021, September 29). Mayo Clinic. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/male-hypogonadism/symptoms-causes/syc-20354881

4 Sizar O, Schwartz J. Hypogonadism. [Updated 2022 Jun 27]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK532933/

5 Pinsky MR, Hellstrom WJ. Hypogonadism, ADAM, and hormone replacement. Ther Adv Urol. 2010 Jun;2(3):99-104. doi: 10.1177/1756287210369805. PMID: 21789087; PMCID: PMC3126089.

6 Dandona P, Rosenberg MT. A practical guide to male hypogonadism in the primary care setting. Int J Clin Pract. 2010 May;64(6):682-96. doi: 10.1111/j.1742-1241.2010.02355.x. PMID: 20518947; PMCID: PMC2948422.

7 Rodprasert W, Toppari J, Virtanen HE. Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Reproductive Health in Boys and Men. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2021 Oct 7;12:706532. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2021.706532. PMID: 34690925; PMCID: PMC8530230.

8 Travison TG, Araujo AB, O’Donnell AB, Kupelian V, McKinlay JB. A population-level decline in serum testosterone levels in American men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Jan;92(1):196-202. doi: 10.1210/jc.2006-1375. Epub 2006 Oct 24. PMID: 17062768.

9 Rami, Y., Ebrahimpour, K., Maghami, M. et al. The Association Between Heavy Metals Exposure and Sex Hormones: a Systematic Review on Current Evidence. Biol Trace Elem Res 200, 3491–3510 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-021-02947-0

10 Hayes RB. The carcinogenicity of metals in humans. Cancer Causes Control. 1997 May;8(3):371-85. doi: 10.1023/a:1018457305212. PMID: 9498900.

11 Bose-O’Reilly S, Drasch G, Beinhoff C, Maydl S, Vosko MR, Roider G, et al. The Mt. Diwata study on the Philippines, 2000-treatment of mercury intoxicated inhabitants of a gold mining area with DMPS (2,3-dimercapto-1-propane-sulfonic acid, Dimaval) Sci Total Environ. 2003;307:71–82.

12 Aposhian HV. DMSA and DMPS—water soluble antidotes for heavy metal poisoning. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology. 1983;23:193–215.

13 King JA, Rosal MC, Ma Y, Reed GW. Association of stress, hostility and plasma testosterone levels. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2005 Aug;26(4):355-60. PMID: 16136009.

14 Jayaraman A, Lent-Schochet D, Pike CJ. Diet-induced obesity and low testosterone increase neuroinflammation and impair neural function. J Neuroinflammation. 2014 Sep 16;11:162. doi: 10.1186/s12974-014-0162-y. PMID: 25224590; PMCID: PMC4190446.

15 Devi S, Saxena J, Rastogi D, Goel A, Saha S. Effect of short-term physical exercise on serum total testosterone levels in young adults. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2014 Apr-Jun;58(2):178-81. PMID: 25509972.

16 Schwab R, Johnson GO, Housh TJ, Kinder JE, Weir JP. Acute effects of different intensities of weight lifting on serum testosterone. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1993 Dec;25(12):1381-5. PMID: 8107546.

17 Cremades A, Ruzafa C, Monserrat F, López-Contreras AJ, Peñafiel R. Influence of dietary arginine on the anabolic effects of androgens. J Endocrinol. 2004 Nov;183(2):343-51. doi: 10.1677/joe.1.05783. PMID: 15531722.

18 Kanaley JA. Growth hormone, arginine and exercise. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2008 Jan;11(1):50-4. doi: 10.1097/MCO.0b013e3282f2b0ad. PMID: 18090659.

19 Ambiye VR, Langade D, Dongre S, Aptikar P, Kulkarni M, Dongre A. Clinical Evaluation of the Spermatogenic Activity of the Root Extract of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) in Oligospermic Males: A Pilot Study. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:571420. doi: 10.1155/2013/571420. Epub 2013 Nov 28. PMID: 24371462; PMCID: PMC3863556.

20 Lopresti AL, Drummond PD, Smith SJ. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Study Examining the Hormonal and Vitality Effects of Ashwagandha ( Withania somnifera) in Aging, Overweight Males. Am J Mens Health. 2019 Mar-Apr;13(2):1557988319835985. doi: 10.1177/1557988319835985. PMID: 30854916; PMCID: PMC6438434.

21 Liu TC, Lin CH, Huang CY, Ivy JL, Kuo CH. Effect of acute DHEA administration on free testosterone in middle-aged and young men following high-intensity interval training. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2013 Jul;113(7):1783-92. doi: 10.1007/s00421-013-2607-x. Epub 2013 Feb 17. PMID: 23417481.

22 Vigneswaran K, Hamoda H. Hormone replacement therapy – Current recommendations. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2022 May;81:8-21. doi: 10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2021.12.001. Epub 2021 Dec 14. PMID: 35000809.

Mercury Toxicity And The Harmful Effects It Has On Our Health

Mercury Toxicity – How To Remove Mercury From The Body

Mercury toxicity can be caused by a variety of sources, including dietary intake, occupational exposure, and environmental pollutants. Mercury is a neurotoxin and can affect the nervous system, kidneys, skin, brain, heart, and many other organs in the body.

Mercury can be found in a variety of products, including fluorescent lamps, thermometers, thermostats, and electrical switches. It is also used in some dental amalgams as a component of the silver alloy. Presently, the most common form of mercury exposure comes from fish and seafood consumption.1 2

Read more about the toxicity of dental fillings.

Symptoms Of Mercury Toxicity

The symptoms of mercury toxicity include fatigue, headache, impaired motor function, insomnia, digestive disturbances such as nausea and vomiting, memory problems, irritability, anxiety, and depression. 

Long-term exposure to high levels of mercury can cause more severe symptoms like vision loss, hearing loss, kidney failure, and neurological problems. It can also cause permanent damage to the brain, nerves, kidneys, and other organs. People with existing health conditions such as heart disease are more at risk for experiencing more severe symptoms from mercury poisoning.3

Diseases That Stem From Mercury Toxicity

Mercury toxicity can lead to a range of health issues, including neurological and cognitive impairment, cardiovascular diseases, kidney damage, and reproductive system dysfunction. Neurological symptoms associated with mercury toxicity include headaches, vertigo, insomnia, memory loss, depression, irritability, and tremors.4 5

Cardiovascular symptoms may include chest pain and hypertension.6 7 Reproductive system dysfunction associated with mercury toxicity includes reproductive organ damage, infertility, miscarriage, and birth defects.

Mercury Toxicity

Mercury Toxicity And Kidney Dysfunction

The kidneys provide the body with many important functions, including filtering out toxins and waste materials from the blood. Mercury is a toxic substance that can accumulate in the kidneys if it is ingested or inhaled, leading to serious health issues such as kidney dysfunction. Signs of mercury toxicity and kidney dysfunction include fatigue, weakness, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.8

Mercury Toxicity And Cognitive Impairment

Mercury toxicity can lead to serious physical and mental health problems. Mercury poisoning can affect virtually any organ in the body, but it is especially dangerous for the brain and nervous system. Exposure to high levels of mercury can cause cognitive impairments, including memory loss, difficulty concentrating, and difficulty learning.9

Mercury And Autism

The link between mercury and autism is quite striking, as 74% of 91 studies determined that there is a link between high mercury levels and autism spectrum disorders.10

Mercury Toxicity And Nerve Disorders

Exposure to mercury can cause a wide range of neurological symptoms and conditions, such as headaches, dizziness, memory loss, and difficulty concentrating. It can also lead to more serious issues such as tremors, incoordination, and paralysis. Long-term exposure to mercury can cause nerve damage, which can lead to nerve disorders such as paresthesia (tingling sensations in the skin) and peripheral neuropathy (numbness or numbness of the extremities).11

Mercury Toxicity And Fish

Mercury Toxicity And Autoimmune Conditions

Mercury toxicity is closely linked to autoimmune conditions and inflammation. For example, mercury can bind directly to cellular membranes and cause increased production of cytokines, the inflammatory molecules that are typically associated with autoimmune conditions. Mercury can also affect the body’s ability to absorb nutrients from food properly, which can contribute to the development of an autoimmune disorder.12

Read more about what causes autoimmune conditions.

Mercury Toxicity And Hormone Dysfunction

Mercury toxicity can have serious implications on hormone health and balance. Mercury exposure can disrupt the body’s normal hormonal production, leading to a variety of symptoms including mood swings, fatigue, anxiety, depression, infertility, irregular menstrual cycles, and even cancer.13

Mercury toxicity can also impair the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is responsible for releasing hormones such as cortisol and adrenaline. When this axis is impaired, the body may be unable to effectively regulate its own stress response, leading to further health issues.14

Read more about hormone problems.

The Link Between Mercury And Anxiety

One of the many mental health problems linked to mercury toxicity is anxiety. People with high levels of mercury in their bodies often experience higher levels of stress and worry, as well as fearfulness and panic attacks.15

Mercury Toxicity And Anxiety

Mercury Toxicity And Cardiovascular Function

The effects of mercury on the cardiovascular system are thought to be due to its ability to interfere with normal physiological functions. For example, mercury can disrupt the balance of essential enzymes and hormones in the body, which can affect many bodily processes including cardiovascular activity. 

Mercury has been known to cause oxidative damage to cells in the cardiovascular system, leading to inflammation and cell death. Mercury toxicity has been linked to a decrease in red blood cell count, an increase in white blood cell count, and elevated levels of cholesterol, all of which can have a negative effect on cardiovascular health.16

Mercury Toxicity And Pulmonary Function

Mercury exposure can lead to impaired pulmonary function, which may include reductions in lung capacity and a decrease in forced vital capacity. It can also reduce the amount of oxygen that reaches the bloodstream, leading to fatigue, difficulty breathing, chest pain, coughing, and wheezing. Long-term exposure to high levels of mercury lead to more serious health conditions, such as pulmonary edema, chronic bronchitis, and even lung cancer.17

Mercury Toxicity And Fertility

Mercury toxicity not only impacts our health but can also affect fertility in both men and women. Exposure to mercury can lead to a decrease in sex hormones which may reduce fertility. In men, exposure to even low levels of mercury can cause damage to sperm cells, reducing their motility and viability. Men exposed to higher levels of mercury may experience changes in the shape, size, and structure of sperm.18

In women, mercury exposure can disrupt ovulation by impairing hormone receptor sites. This can cause irregular menstruation or even complete cessation of periods. In addition, mercury toxicity may affect a woman’s ability to produce eggs as well as her ability to carry a pregnancy to term.19

Mercury Toxicity And Obesity

The link between mercury toxicity and obesity has been the focus of ongoing research. Evidence suggests that people with higher levels of mercury in their bodies may be more likely to develop obesity-related health problems. Research shows that elevated exposure to mercury can increase fat storage, disrupt hormones, and impair metabolism, all factors that lead to weight gain.20 

Read more about how to lose fat.

Mercury Toxicity And Obesity

Mercury Toxicity And Cancer

Research suggests that high levels of mercury in the environment may lead to genetic mutations that can result in cancers. High levels of mercury exposure have been linked to an increased risk of certain types of cancers, most notably, colorectal cancer.21

Mercury Toxicity And Epigenetic Methylation

Epigenetic methylation is negatively affected by mercury. Methylation is essential for the regulation of gene expression. However, when mercury is present, it causes DNA methylation patterns to become altered.22

This can lead to gene expression changes, which may result in impaired function of the nervous system and other organs. As a consequence, numerous genes are misregulated, leading to potential damage. Specifically, methylation-mediated damage can lead to atherosclerosis, kidney dysfunction, and myocardial infarction.23

How To Remove Mercury From The Body – DMSA Or DMPS Chelation Therapy

DMSA or DMPS chelation therapy is a very effective and safe treatment for mercury toxicity. DMPS chelation is an intravenous procedure, which binds to mercury and removes it from the body. To sufficiently remove mercury requires countless intravenous DMPS sessions. This is why I prefer DMSA chelation, as the use of DMSA is simpler, more consistent, and less invasive because it can be consumed orally.24

Oral DMSA chelation allows the chemical to bind with mercury and clear it from the body through the urine. DMSA chelation therapy typically requires many rounds of treatment. The number of treatments required depends on many factors including how much mercury is present in the body and how long it has been there.

Oral DMSA Chelation For Heavy Metals

Oral DMSA chelation is a safe, effective, and affordable way of treating heavy metal toxicity. It is taken in pill form and works by binding to heavy metals such as mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic, and others.25

Heavy metal toxicity

Mercury Toxicity – How To Remove Mercury From The Body

The only solution to deal with mercury toxicity is to remove it from the body. Mercury toxicity was at the core of my health problems and it wasn’t until I removed mercury from my body and from my brain that I began to experience relief from autoimmune conditions and other idiopathic illnesses.

Realize that removing heavy metals like mercury from the body takes time, but patience is quite literally a virtue in this sense, as once these toxins have been excreted out of the cells and out of the body, the source of many autoimmune conditions will cease to exist.

Read more about detoxifying the body of heavy metals.


1 World Health Organization. International Programme on Chemical Safety. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 1991. Inorganic mercury: environmental health criteria 118.

2 Richardson M. The Safety of Dental Amalgam. Canada: Minister of Health; 1996. (ISBN 0-662-24873-2).

3 Bernhoft RA. Mercury toxicity and treatment: a review of the literature. J Environ Public Health. 2012;2012:460508. doi: 10.1155/2012/460508. Epub 2011 Dec 22. PMID: 22235210; PMCID: PMC3253456.

4 Pendergrass JC, Haley BE, Vimy MJ, Winfield SA, Lorscheider FL. Mercury vapor inhalation inhibits binding of GTP to tubulin in rat brain: similarity to a molecular lesion in Alzheimer diseased brain. NeuroToxicology. 1997;18(2):315–324.

5 Fujimura M, Usuki F, Sawada M, Takashima A. Methylmercury induces neuropathological changes with tau hyperphosphorylation mainly through the activation of the c-jun-N-terminal kinase pathway in the cerebral cortex, but not in the hippocampus of the mouse brain. NeuroToxicology. 2009;30(6):1000–1007.

6 Kim DS, Lee EH, Yu SD, Cha JH, Ahn SC. Heavy metal as risk factor of cardiovascular disease—an analysis of blood lead and urinary mercury. J Prev Med Public Health. 2005;38:401–7.

7 Fillion M, Mergler D, Passos CJ Sousa, Larribe F, Lemire M, Guimaraes JR. A preliminary study of mercury exposure and blood pressure in the Brazilian Amazon. Environ Health. 2006;5:29.

8 Han B, Lv Z, Han X, Li S, Han B, Yang Q, Wang X, Wu P, Li J, Deng N, Zhang Z. Harmful Effects of Inorganic Mercury Exposure on Kidney Cells: Mitochondrial Dynamics Disorder and Excessive Oxidative Stress. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2022 Apr;200(4):1591-1597. doi: 10.1007/s12011-021-02766-3. Epub 2021 May 31. PMID: 34060062.

9 Milioni ALV, Nagy BV, Moura ALA, Zachi EC, Barboni MTS, Ventura DF. Neurotoxic impact of mercury on the central nervous system evaluated by neuropsychological tests and on the autonomic nervous system evaluated by dynamic pupillometry. Neurotoxicology. 2017 Mar;59:263-269. doi: 10.1016/j.neuro.2016.04.010. Epub 2016 Apr 16. PMID: 27090823.

10 Kern JK, Geier DA, Sykes LK, Haley BE, Geier MR. The relationship between mercury and autism: A comprehensive review and discussion. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2016 Sep;37:8-24. doi: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2016.06.002. Epub 2016 Jun 2. PMID: 27473827.

11 Echeverria D, Heyer NJ, Martin MD, Naleway CA, Woods JS, Bittner Jr. AC. Behavioral effects of low-level exposure to Hg° among dentists. Neurotoxicology and Teratology. 1995;17(2):161–168.

12 Pollard KM, Cauvi DM, Toomey CB, Hultman P, Kono DH. Mercury-induced inflammation and autoimmunity. Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj. 2019 Dec;1863(12):129299. doi: 10.1016/j.bbagen.2019.02.001. Epub 2019 Feb 10. PMID: 30742953; PMCID: PMC6689266.

13 Siblerud RL, Motl J, Kienholz E. Psychometric evidence that mercury from silver dental fillings may be an etiological factor in depression, excessive anger, and anxiety. Psychological Reports. 1994;74(1):67–80.

14 Schreier HM, Hsu HH, Amarasiriwardena C, Coull BA, Schnaas L, Téllez-Rojo MM, Tamayo y Ortiz M, Wright RJ, Wright RO. Mercury and psychosocial stress exposure interact to predict maternal diurnal cortisol during pregnancy. Environ Health. 2015 Mar 27;14:28. doi: 10.1186/s12940-015-0016-9. PMID: 25889585; PMCID: PMC4377006.

15 Kern JK, Geier DA, Bjørklund G, King PG, Homme KG, Haley BE, Sykes LK, Geier MR. Evidence supporting a link between dental amalgams and chronic illness, fatigue, depression, anxiety, and suicide. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2014;35(7):537-52. PMID: 25617876.

16 Salonen JT, Seppanen K, Nyyssonen K, et al. Intake of mercury from fish, lipid peroxidation, and the risk of myocardial infarction and coronary, cardiovascular, and any death in Eastern Finnish men. Circulation. 1995;91(3):645–655.

17 Miao J, Feng S, Dou S, Ma Y, Yang L, Yan L, Yu P, Wu Y, Ye T, Wen B, Lu P, Li S, Guo Y. Association between mercury exposure and lung function in young adults: A prospective cohort study in Shandong, China. Sci Total Environ. 2023 Mar 11;878:162759. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2023.162759. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 36907407.

18 Bakir F, Damluji SF, Amin-Zaki L, Murtadha M, Khalidi A, Al-Rawi NY, et al. Methylmercury poisoning in Iraq. Science. 1973;181:230–41.

19 Bjørklund G, Chirumbolo S, Dadar M, Pivina L, Lindh U, Butnariu M, Aaseth J. Mercury exposure and its effects on fertility and pregnancy outcome. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2019 Oct;125(4):317-327. doi: 10.1111/bcpt.13264. Epub 2019 Aug 8. PMID: 31136080.

20 Cho KY. Association of Blood Mercury Levels with the Risks of Overweight and High Waist-to-Height Ratio in Children and Adolescents: Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Children (Basel). 2021 Nov 25;8(12):1087. doi: 10.3390/children8121087. PMID: 34943283; PMCID: PMC8700710.

21 Kim H, Lee J, Woo HD, Kim DW, Oh JH, Chang HJ, Sohn DK, Shin A, Kim J. Dietary mercury intake and colorectal cancer risk: A case-control study. Clin Nutr. 2020 Jul;39(7):2106-2113. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2019.08.025. Epub 2019 Aug 31. PMID: 31522783.

22 Gruenwedel DW, Lu DS. Changes in the sedimentation characteristics of DNA due to methylmercuration. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 1970;40(3):542–548.

23 Khan F, Momtaz S, Abdollahi M. The relationship between mercury exposure and epigenetic alterations regarding human health, risk assessment and diagnostic strategies. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2019 Mar;52:37-47. doi: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2018.11.006. Epub 2018 Nov 14. PMID: 30732897.

24 Bose-O’Reilly S, Drasch G, Beinhoff C, Maydl S, Vosko MR, Roider G, et al. The Mt. Diwata study on the Philippines, 2000-treatment of mercury intoxicated inhabitants of a gold mining area with DMPS (2,3-dimercapto-1-propane-sulfonic acid, Dimaval) Sci Total Environ. 2003;307:71–82.

25 Aposhian HV. DMSA and DMPS—water soluble antidotes for heavy metal poisoning. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology. 1983;23:193–215.

Lead Toxicity And How It Affects Our Health

Lead Toxicity – How To Remove Lead From The Body

170 million Americans suffer from lead toxicity, mainly due to childhood exposure. Those disproportionately affected were born between the years 1951 and 1980. Lead toxicity can result in various health problems, including decreased cognitive development, learning disabilities, behavior issues, and physical ailments.1

What Products Contain Lead?

Lead can be found in a variety of products, including some paint, water pipes and plumbing fixtures, batteries, cable covers, ceramic glazes and tableware, certain traditional cosmetics, ammunition, and fishing weights. Lead is also sometimes contained in alloys that are used to make jewelry and toys. 

Even items like vinyl mini-blinds often contain lead. It is important to be aware of the potential presence of lead in products, and it is especially important to be careful when working with any potentially contaminated items. Lead-based paint can still be found on some older buildings, so it may be necessary to take extra precautions if doing work in those areas. Lead paint was the most common source of lead exposure for children until it was banned in 1978.

Leaded gasoline was used in cars until it was phased out in the U.S. beginning in the 1970s and completely banned in 1996.2 3

Lead Paint Is Toxic

Lead Exposure In Children

Lead accumulates in bone tissue and can cause serious health problems. It is particularly dangerous for children, as their brains and nervous systems are still developing.4 Lead toxicity is magnified in children because their bodies absorb lead at a much faster rate. This can severely affect the developing brain and cause a long-term reduction in IQ. Even low levels of lead in a child’s body can result in behavioral, speech, and hearing problems. If left untreated, these conditions can cause permanent learning disabilities and developmental delays.5 6

Lead Toxicity In Children

Lead Reduces Intelligence

Exposure to lead reduces intelligence, especially in children. Several studies have linked lead exposure to lower IQs in children and adults alike.7 8 Even low lead exposure can have a significant impact on cognitive development, leading to reduced learning ability and impaired problem-solving skills. In addition, lead exposure has been linked to an increased risk of developing Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).9

Diseases That Stem From Lead Toxicity

Lead toxicity can cause a variety of medical conditions. Lead has been linked to problems such as high blood pressure, nerve damage, cognitive impairment, weakened bones and joints, infertility issues in both men and women, hearing loss, anemia, kidney problems, and more.10

In infants and young children, lead exposure can significantly impact neurological development leading to learning difficulties and behavioral problems.11 In pregnant women, lead toxicity can be passed to their unborn child, leading to physical and mental developmental issues.12 Additionally, research has linked lead exposure to an increased risk of cancer.13

Lead Toxicity And Kidney Dysfunction

Lead toxicity can affect the kidneys in several ways. High levels of lead in the body can damage the kidney’s glomerular filtration rate (GFR), which is responsible for filtering waste products from the bloodstream and regulating water balance in our bodies. The damage to GFR can result in fluid retention, proteinuria, and edema. In addition, lead exposure has been linked to nephrocalcinosis (accumulation of calcium deposits in the kidneys), interstitial nephritis, hypertension, and even chronic kidney disease (CKD).14 15

lead toxicity symptoms

Lead Toxicity And Tremors

Lead poisoning can cause a variety of symptoms and long-term complications. One frequent symptom of lead toxicity is tremors, or uncontrollable shaking in parts of the body such as the hands, feet, and face. These tremors may be accompanied by weakness, an unsteady gait, and difficulty with coordination.16

Lead Toxicity And Nerve Disorders

Exposure to lead can cause nerve damage. Nerve damage caused by lead exposure may manifest as numbness, weakness, paralysis, or difficulty walking and speaking. It can also cause problems with vision, hearing, and memory. Long-term exposure to lead can damage the brain and cause behavioral changes such as irritability, depression, or anxiety.17

Lead Toxicity And Cardiovascular Function

Lead toxicity is a major environmental hazard with significant implications for cardiovascular health. Long-term exposure to lead can result in changes to the structure and function of the cardiovascular system, such as damage to the heart muscle, hypertension, an increased risk of stroke, and decreased vascular reactivity. In addition, lead has been linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, including coronary artery disease and stroke.18 Long-term exposure may cause elevated blood pressure levels and hypertension.19

Lead Toxicity And Fertility

Lead toxicity has been linked to infertility in both men and women. In men, lead exposure may cause decreased sperm count and quality, leading to difficulty in achieving conception. It can also lower testosterone levels, which can affect sexual desire and performance.20

In women, lead exposure has been linked to irregular menstrual cycles, ovulatory dysfunction, and reduced fertility. Lead can affect the development of eggs and embryos, which may lead to miscarriage or other complications during pregnancy. Exposure to lead can also cause damage to reproductive organs, leading to infertility.21

Lead Toxicity And Fertility

Lead Toxicity And Hormone Dysfunction

Lead toxicity can lead to a variety of hormone-related issues. Lead exposure has been linked to the disruption of endocrine system functioning and hormones, including thyroid, estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, and cortisol. This is due to the fact that lead interferes with the production, transport, and metabolism of these hormones. In particular, lead exposure can cause an increase in the production of cortisol, a stress hormone.22 23

Read more about what is causing hormone dysfunction.

Lead Toxicity And Cancer

Long-term lead contamination has been linked to an increased risk of certain types of cancers such as lung cancer, brain cancer, and estrogen-dominant cancers.24 25 Estrogen-dominant cancers are more common in women than men, and they include breast, ovarian, and uterine cancers.26

Lead exposure has been linked to an increased risk of developing certain types of estrogen-dominant cancers due to its ability to interfere with the body’s hormone balance. Lead can also act as an endocrine disruptor by blocking the action of natural hormones. This can lead to an increased level of estrogen in the body, which can increase the risk of developing certain types of cancer.27

Lead Toxicity And Epigenetic Methylation

Lead toxicity is known to induce undesirable epigenetic methylation, meaning it negatively alters gene expression without modifying the underlying DNA sequence. Studies have shown that lead can cause hypomethylation of DNA in the brain, as well as an increase in gene-specific methylation sites. This can lead to the expression of aberrant genes, which can affect neuronal development and function.

In addition to DNA methylation, lead exposure can also induce histone modifications. These modifications are heritable changes that alter gene expression without changing the underlying DNA sequence. Histone-modifying enzymes have been shown to be involved in learning and memory formation, suggesting a role for lead toxicity in these processes.28

Lead Toxicity And Epigenetic Methylation

How To Remove Lead From The Body – DMSA Or DMPS Chelation Therapy

DMSA or DMPS chelation therapy is a safe and effective method for removing lead from the body. The process involves using either chelator to bind with the lead particles in the bloodstream and remove them through the urine. This method has been used successfully to reduce high levels of lead and other heavy metals in individuals who have been exposed to environmental sources of lead contamination, as well as those with diagnosed lead poisoning.29

Oral DMSA Chelation To Remove Lead From The Body

Oral DMSA chelation is a non-invasive approach to detoxifying the body from heavy metals. This therapy involves taking regular, consistent oral doses of DMSA, which binds to and eliminates heavy metals from the body. It has been used safely and effectively in both adults and children for many years and is considered one of the most effective ways to remove heavy metals from the body.30

Lead Toxicity – How To Remove Lead From The Body

Lead toxicity was at the core of my wife’s health problems, my son’s health problems, and many of my patients’ health issues. While removing toxic heavy metals like lead and mercury takes time, this is the only solution to remedying diseases that stem from heavy metal toxicity.

Read more about removing heavy metals from the body here.


1 McFarland, M. J., Hauer, M. E., & Reuben, A. (2022). Half of US population exposed to adverse lead levels in early childhood. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 119(11). https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2118631119

2 J. Annest et al., Chronological trend in blood lead levels between 1976 and 1980. N. Engl. J. Med. 308, 1373–1377 (1983).

3 V. M. Thomas, The elimination of lead in gasoline. Annu. Rev. Energy Environ. 20, 301–324 (1995).

4 B. P. Lanphear et al., Low-level environmental lead exposure and children’s intellectual function: An international pooled analysis. Environ. Health Perspect. 113, 894–899 (2005).

5 E. Gould, Childhood lead poisoning: Conservative estimates of the social and economic benefits of lead hazard control. Environ. Health Perspect. 117, 1162–1167 (2009).

6 J. Boyle, D. Yeter, M. Aschner, D. C. Wheeler, Estimated IQ points and lifetime earnings lost to early childhood blood lead levels in the United States. Sci. Total Environ. 778, 146307 (2021).

7 A. H. M. Kilgour, J. M. Starr, L. J. Whalley, Associations between childhood intelligence (IQ), adult morbidity and mortality. Maturitas 65, 98–105 (2010).

8 G. A. Wasserman et al., The relationship between blood lead, bone lead and child intelligence. Child Neuropsychol. 9, 22–34 (2003).

9 Donzelli G, Carducci A, Llopis-Gonzalez A, Verani M, Llopis-Morales A, Cioni L, Morales-Suárez-Varela M. The Association between Lead and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Systematic Review. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Jan 29;16(3):382. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16030382. PMID: 30700018; PMCID: PMC6388268.

10 Lead poisoning – Symptoms and causes – Mayo Clinic. (2022, January 21). Mayo Clinic. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/lead-poisoning/symptoms-causes/syc-20354717

11 Albores-Garcia D, McGlothan JL, Guilarte TR. Early-life lead exposure and neurodevelopmental disorders. Curr Opin Toxicol. 2021 Jun;26:22-27. doi: 10.1016/j.cotox.2021.03.007. Epub 2021 Apr 2. PMID: 34013137; PMCID: PMC8128139.

12 Wang, G. Association between maternal exposure to lead, maternal folate status, and intergenerational risk of childhood overweight and obesity. JAMA Network Open. 2019. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.12343.

13 Steenland K, Boffetta P. Lead and cancer in humans: where are we now? Am J Ind Med. 2000 Sep;38(3):295-9. doi: 10.1002/1097-0274(200009)38:3<295::aid-ajim8>3.0.co;2-l. PMID: 10940967.

14 Nakhaee S, Amirabadizadeh A, Brent J, Mehrpour O. Impact of chronic lead exposure on liver and kidney function and haematologic parameters. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2019 May;124(5):621-628. doi: 10.1111/bcpt.13179. Epub 2018 Dec 18. PMID: 30471187.

15 RADOSEVIC Z, SARIC M, BERITIC T, KNEZEVIC J. The kidney in lead poisoning. Br J Ind Med. 1961 Jul;18(3):222-30. doi: 10.1136/oem.18.3.222. PMID: 13739013; PMCID: PMC1038152.

16 Lucchini RG, Hashim D. Tremor secondary to neurotoxic exposure: mercury, lead, solvents, pesticides. Handb Clin Neurol. 2015;131:241-9. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-62627-1.00014-7. PMID: 26563793.

17 Sanders T, Liu Y, Buchner V, Tchounwou PB. Neurotoxic effects and biomarkers of lead exposure: a review. Rev Environ Health. 2009 Jan-Mar;24(1):15-45. doi: 10.1515/reveh.2009.24.1.15. PMID: 19476290; PMCID: PMC2858639.

18 Navas-Acien A, Guallar E, Silbergeld EK, Rothenberg SJ. Lead exposure and cardiovascular disease–a systematic review. Environ Health Perspect. 2007 Mar;115(3):472-82. doi: 10.1289/ehp.9785. Epub 2006 Dec 22. PMID: 17431501; PMCID: PMC1849948.

19 Qu Y, Lv Y, Ji S, Ding L, Zhao F, Zhu Y, Zhang W, Hu X, Lu Y, Li Y, Zhang X, Zhang M, Yang Y, Li C, Zhang M, Li Z, Chen C, Zheng L, Gu H, Zhu H, Sun Q, Cai J, Song S, Ying B, Lin S, Cao Z, Liang D, Ji JS, Ryan PB, Barr DB, Shi X. Effect of exposures to mixtures of lead and various metals on hypertension, pre-hypertension, and blood pressure: A cross-sectional study from the China National Human Biomonitoring. Environ Pollut. 2022 Apr 15;299:118864. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2022.118864. Epub 2022 Jan 18. PMID: 35063540.

20 Sallmén M, Lindbohm ML, Nurminen M. Paternal exposure to lead and infertility. Epidemiology. 2000 Mar;11(2):148-52. doi: 10.1097/00001648-200003000-00011. PMID: 11021611.

21 Lee S, Min JY, Min KB. Female Infertility Associated with Blood Lead and Cadmium Levels. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Mar 10;17(5):1794. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17051794. PMID: 32164251; PMCID: PMC7084729.

22 Balachandar R, Bagepally BS, Kalahasthi R, Haridoss M. Blood lead levels and male reproductive hormones: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Toxicology. 2020 Oct;443:152574. doi: 10.1016/j.tox.2020.152574. Epub 2020 Aug 26. PMID: 32860866.

23 Kresovich JK, Argos M, Turyk ME. Associations of lead and cadmium with sex hormones in adult males. Environ Res. 2015 Oct;142:25-33. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2015.05.026. Epub 2015 Jun 17. PMID: 26093239.

24 Rhee J, Graubard BI, Purdue MP. Blood lead levels and lung cancer mortality: An updated analysis of NHANES II and III. Cancer Med. 2021 Jun;10(12):4066-4074. doi: 10.1002/cam4.3943. Epub 2021 May 7. PMID: 33963676; PMCID: PMC8209588.

25 Meng Y, Tang C, Yu J, Meng S, Zhang W. Exposure to lead increases the risk of meningioma and brain cancer: A meta-analysis. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2020 Jul;60:126474. doi: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2020.126474. Epub 2020 Feb 27. PMID: 32146339.

26 Anđelković M, Djordjevic AB, Javorac D, Baralić K, Đukić-Ćosić D, Repić A, Zeljković A, Vekić J, Čolaković N, Bulat Z. Possible role of lead in breast cancer – a case-control study. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2022 Sep;29(43):65211-65221. doi: 10.1007/s11356-022-20439-z. Epub 2022 Apr 29. PMID: 35488155.

27 Rattan S, Zhou C, Chiang C, Mahalingam S, Brehm E, Flaws JA. Exposure to endocrine disruptors during adulthood: consequences for female fertility. J Endocrinol. 2017 Jun;233(3):R109-R129. doi: 10.1530/JOE-17-0023. Epub 2017 Mar 29. PMID: 28356401; PMCID: PMC5479690.

28 Wang T, Zhang J, Xu Y. Epigenetic Basis of Lead-Induced Neurological Disorders. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Jul 7;17(13):4878. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17134878. PMID: 32645824; PMCID: PMC7370007.

29 Bjørklund G, Mutter J, Aaseth J. Metal chelators and neurotoxicity: lead, mercury, and arsenic. Arch Toxicol. 2017 Dec;91(12):3787-3797. doi: 10.1007/s00204-017-2100-0. Epub 2017 Oct 24. PMID: 29063135.

30 Aposhian HV. DMSA and DMPS—water soluble antidotes for heavy metal poisoning. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology. 1983;23:193–215.

Intermittent Fasting And Longevity

Intermittent Fasting And Longevity – How Eating Less Increases Lifespan And Improves Health

The link between intermittent fasting and longevity has long been known. In addition to increasing lifespan, fasting improves our health overall. Fasting helps regulate metabolism, reduces inflammation and oxidative stress, and protects against age-related diseases. Fasting can also reduce our risk of certain types of cancer, diabetes, heart disease, and stroke.

Decades of research have shown that maintaining a daily calorie intake at levels of around 60-80% of normal has numerous health benefits and can help delay the onset of age-related diseases.1 This is due to the transient increase in cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which in turn triggers a protective and adaptive response.2 

SIRT1, an important histone deacetylase with significant impacts on cellular metabolism and aging, has been found to regulate genes that affect aging by increasing the expression of ROS-scavenging genes.3

Mitochondria are integral in this protective process, as they are the primary source of ROS, and the transcription factors within them are up-regulated by caloric restriction.4 Caloric restriction causes a short-term increase in oxidative stress, which ultimately leads to protective responses that shield cells from further ROS damage over time.

Intermittent Fasting And Longevity – Early Onset Caloric Restriction (EOCR)

Early onset caloric restriction (EOCR), a form of Intermittent Fasting, is a dietary strategy that has been shown to extend the lifespan in small mammals. Recent studies have demonstrated that restricting caloric intake on a circadian schedule may be even more effective than standard EOCR protocols at promoting longevity. 

By delaying meals until after an animal’s normal time of food intake, scientists were able to reduce the amount of food consumed while still maintaining a healthy body weight. This technique of aligning caloric restriction with the animal’s natural circadian clock allowed the animals to benefit from the life-extending effects of calorie restriction without having to drastically cut their daily caloric intake.

Not only did this approach result in increased longevity, but the animals also stayed healthier throughout their lifespans. In particular, mice on a circadian-aligned EOCR regimen had lower levels of oxidative stress and preserved organ function compared to those on an unaltered diet. Additionally, they experienced fewer age-related diseases such as diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. This indicates that early-onset calorie restriction, when aligned with an organism’s internal circadian clock, is an effective strategy for promoting longevity and overall health.5

Intermittent Fasting And Longevity

Intermittent Fasting And Longevity

Intermittent fasting has been linked to a decrease in overall mortality rates for individuals who have undergone cardiac catheterization. Studies have shown that routine Intermittent Fasting (IF) practiced for two-thirds of a lifespan has been linked to increased longevity. This is due to the fact that intermittent fasting can reduce oxidative stress and improve metabolic health, which are two factors associated with longevity.6

Intermittent Fasting And Longevity – SIRT1 Gene

The SIRT1 gene has been linked to long-term survival in humans and other species. This gene encodes for an enzyme that helps regulate metabolism, stress response, and cell death. When this gene is activated by fasting, the body is better able to cope with stress, which may lead to extended periods of health and longevity.7

Intermittent Fasting And Cancer Risk

Sirtuins have been shown to play important roles in regulating cancer metabolism. Specifically, SIRT1 has been linked to the regulation of tumor suppressor proteins such as p53, suggesting a potential role for sirtuins in controlling cell proliferation and apoptosis. Sirtuins also play a role in the regulation of autophagy, which is linked to tumorigenesis. Thus, fasting-induced metabolic regulation of sirtuins may provide an effective means to reduce the risk of cancer.7

Intermittent Fasting And Longevity – PLA2G7 Enzyme

The PLA2G7 enzyme is modified by calorie restriction. PLA2G7 is involved in the breakdown of phospholipids, a type of fat molecule. This enzyme has been shown to be upregulated in animals that are subjected to calorie restriction. Furthermore, studies have demonstrated that increasing levels of this enzyme can lead to an increase in lifespan and improved healthspan. 

Additionally, PLA2G7 has been linked to increased levels of autophagy, a cellular process that helps to clear away damaged cells and maintain healthy tissues. It also plays a role in protecting against age-related diseases and disorders. Finally, studies have suggested that PLA2G7 may be involved in the regulation of inflammation, which could help protect against chronic diseases.8

Intermittent Fasting And Longevity - SIRT1 Gene

Intermittent Fasting And Diabetes

In people diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes mellitus, intermittent fasting can lead to a reduction in the risk of hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia is caused by an abnormally low level of glucose in the blood due to a lack of food or insulin and can have serious health implications if not managed appropriately. 

Studies have shown that when individuals adopt an intermittent fasting protocol, they can experience reductions in blood glucose levels and a decrease in the risk of hypoglycemia. Intermittent fasting has also been linked to improved glycemic control, increased insulin sensitivity, and decreased body fat percentage.9

Recent studies have found that IF can maintain and preserve β-cell mass in obese individuals with type 2 diabetes, independent of weight loss. It does this by activating autophagy-lysosome pathways, a process in which cells break down and recycle their own damaged components to maintain healthy functioning. Autophagy-lysosome pathways are essential for the maintenance of β-cell mass as well as for glucose homeostasis.10

Read more about diabetes.

Intermittent Fasting And Diabetes

Intermittent Fasting And Longevity – Gut Microbiome Improvements

Obese mice on an intermittent fasting diet exhibited improved lipid metabolism than those given a normal diet. This improvement was mainly due to changes in the gut microbiota. In other words, fasting improves gut microbiome biodiversity. While fasting, changes in the gut microbiome can be detected within a few days. During this time period, short-chain fatty acid production increases while Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes populations decrease.11

Read more about losing fat.

Intermittent Fasting And Inflammation

Intermittent fasting can lead to reductions in adipose tissue inflammation, which is associated with metabolic health. In a recent study, researchers examined the effects of intermittent fasting on markers of adipose tissue inflammation in overweight and obese women. The results showed that there were transient increases in some markers of adipose tissue inflammation during the period of intermittent fasting.

In addition to the transient increases in adipose tissue inflammation markers observed during intermittent fasting, there were also decreases in some inflammatory cytokines. Inflammatory cytokines are molecules that help regulate an individual’s immune system and can be linked to various diseases and health conditions. In particular, the study found that there were reductions in Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α).12

Read more about inflammation.

Intermittent Fasting Reduces The Risk Of Stroke

Inflammasomes are complexes of proteins that form within cells in response to certain cellular stressors, leading to inflammation and cell death. When these complexes are activated, they can cause damage to the brain tissue and impair recovery from stroke. Studies have shown that intermittent fasting can reduce inflammasome activity in ischemic stroke. This suggests that IF can be beneficial for those recovering from a stroke, as it can help to reduce the risk of further damage.13

Intermittent Fasting Protects The Brain

IF supports the development of new neurons within certain areas of the hippocampus portion of the brain. Specifically, IF increases levels of neurotrophic factors, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). BDNF is important for the survival of neurons and modulates neuronal plasticity required for the formation of new memories and learning.

In combination, these results suggest that IF may be a beneficial intervention for maintaining healthy brain function. Additionally, research has indicated that IF could help reduce the risk of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. It is thought this could occur due to the protective effects of BDNF and neurogenesis, both of which have been linked with improved cognitive function.14

Intermittent Fasting And Autophagy

Intermittent fasting has been found to induce autophagy, a process by which cells break down and recycle their own components. This helps to protect the brain from oxidative stress and inflammation, both of which can also contribute to stroke recovery.

The benefits of intermittent fasting on ischemic stroke recovery may extend beyond reducing inflammasome activity and inducing autophagy. Intermittent fasting has also been shown to improve metabolic health, which can help reduce the risk of future cardiovascular events such as stroke.15

Intermittent Fasting And Autophagy

Fasting And Refeeding

Refeeding is just as important as fasting. Refeeding helps replenish the energy stores that were depleted during fasting and restore the body to a healthy, balanced state. It is important to consume nutrient-dense, whole foods when refeeding after periods of fasting so your body can get the vital vitamins and minerals it needs to function optimally. 

Refeeding should be done gradually and in small portions, as eating large meals at once may lead to digestive discomfort. With careful planning and mindful eating, you can ensure that your refeeding period is just as successful as your fasting period. Ultimately, the goal of a fasting-refeeding cycle is to maintain balance for optimal health. 

Ideally, follow a diet like my Cellular Healing Diet.

Cellular healing diet

Intermittent Fasting and Longevity

The connection between intermittent fasting and longevity has been studied and discussed extensively. The evidence makes it clear that intermittent fasting can extend lifespan. Additionally, there are a number of potential benefits associated with fasting including improved metabolic health, increased autophagy, and reduced inflammation.

Read more about the benefits of fasting.


1 Anton S, Leeuwenburgh C. Fasting or caloric restriction for healthy aging. Exp Gerontol. 2013 Oct;48(10):1003-5. doi: 10.1016/j.exger.2013.04.011. Epub 2013 Apr 29. PMID: 23639403; PMCID: PMC3919445.

2 Ristow M, Schmeisser S. Extending life span by increasing oxidative stress. Free Radic Biol Med. 2011 Jul 15;51(2):327-36. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2011.05.010. Epub 2011 May 14. PMID: 21619928.

3 Chaudhary N, Pfluger PT. Metabolic benefits from Sirt1 and Sirt1 activators. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2009 Jul;12(4):431-7. doi: 10.1097/MCO.0b013e32832cdaae. PMID: 19474719.

4 Ristow M, Zarse K. How increased oxidative stress promotes longevity and metabolic health: The concept of mitochondrial hormesis (mitohormesis). Exp Gerontol. 2010 Jun;45(6):410-8. doi: 10.1016/j.exger.2010.03.014. Epub 2010 Mar 27. PMID: 20350594.

5 Acosta-Rodríguez V, Rijo-Ferreira F, Izumo M, Xu P, Wight-Carter M, Green CB, Takahashi JS. Circadian alignment of early onset caloric restriction promotes longevity in male C57BL/6J mice. Science. 2022 Jun 10;376(6598):1192-1202. doi: 10.1126/science.abk0297. Epub 2022 May 5. PMID: 35511946; PMCID: PMC9262309.

6 Gal Tsaban, Routine periodic fasting reduces all-cause mortality and heart failure incidence: new insights on old habits, European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, Volume 28, Issue 16, December 2021, Pages 1782–1783, https://doi.org/10.1093/eurjpc/zwaa057

7 Zhu Y, Yan Y, Gius DR, Vassilopoulos A. Metabolic regulation of Sirtuins upon fasting and the implication for cancer. Curr Opin Oncol. 2013 Nov;25(6):630-6. doi: 10.1097/01.cco.0000432527.49984.a3. PMID: 24048020; PMCID: PMC5525320.

8 Spadaro O, Youm Y, Shchukina I, Ryu S, Sidorov S, Ravussin A, Nguyen K, Aladyeva E, Predeus AN, Smith SR, Ravussin E, Galban C, Artyomov MN, Dixit VD. Caloric restriction in humans reveals immunometabolic regulators of health span. Science. 2022 Feb 11;375(6581):671-677. doi: 10.1126/science.abg7292. Epub 2022 Feb 10. PMID: 35143297; PMCID: PMC10061495.

9 Corley BT, Carroll RW, Hall RM, Weatherall M, Parry-Strong A, Krebs JD. Intermittent fasting in Type 2 diabetes mellitus and the risk of hypoglycaemia: a randomized controlled trial. Diabet Med. 2018 May;35(5):588-594. doi: 10.1111/dme.13595. Epub 2018 Feb 27. PMID: 29405359.

10 Liu H, Javaheri A, Godar RJ, Murphy J, Ma X, Rohatgi N, Mahadevan J, Hyrc K, Saftig P, Marshall C, McDaniel ML, Remedi MS, Razani B, Urano F, Diwan A. Intermittent fasting preserves beta-cell mass in obesity-induced diabetes via the autophagy-lysosome pathway. Autophagy. 2017;13(11):1952-1968. doi: 10.1080/15548627.2017.1368596. Epub 2017 Nov 25. PMID: 28853981; PMCID: PMC5788488.

11 Deng Y, Liu W, Wang J, Yu J, Yang LQ. Intermittent Fasting Improves Lipid Metabolism Through Changes in Gut Microbiota in Diet-Induced Obese Mice. Med Sci Monit. 2020 Nov 23;26:e926789. doi: 10.12659/MSM.926789. PMID: 33223514; PMCID: PMC7693779.

12 Liu B, Hutchison AT, Thompson CH, Lange K, Heilbronn LK. Markers of adipose tissue inflammation are transiently elevated during intermittent fasting in women who are overweight or obese. Obes Res Clin Pract. 2019 Jul-Aug;13(4):408-415. doi: 10.1016/j.orcp.2019.07.001. Epub 2019 Jul 11. PMID: 31302012.

13 Fann DY, Santro T, Manzanero S, Widiapradja A, Cheng YL, Lee SY, Chunduri P, Jo DG, Stranahan AM, Mattson MP, Arumugam TV. Intermittent fasting attenuates inflammasome activity in ischemic stroke. Exp Neurol. 2014 Jul;257:114-9. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2014.04.017. Epub 2014 May 5. PMID: 24805069.

14 Baik SH, Rajeev V, Fann DY, Jo DG, Arumugam TV. Intermittent fasting increases adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Brain Behav. 2020 Jan;10(1):e01444. doi: 10.1002/brb3.1444. Epub 2019 Dec 5. PMID: 31804775; PMCID: PMC6955834.

15 Jamshed H, Beyl RA, Della Manna DL, Yang ES, Ravussin E, Peterson CM. Early Time-Restricted Feeding Improves 24-Hour Glucose Levels and Affects Markers of the Circadian Clock, Aging, and Autophagy in Humans. Nutrients. 2019 May 30;11(6):1234. doi: 10.3390/nu11061234. PMID: 31151228; PMCID: PMC6627766.